Laparoscopy, also known as keyhole surgery, refers to a minimally invasive surgical procedure which is performed using a laparoscope. A laparoscope is essentially a small fibre-optic instrument with a camera and lens connected to it.
This small telescope is equipped with a built-in magnification mechanism. During the surgery, different types of surgical instruments are inserted through small incisions made in the skin. Laparoscopy offers several diagnostic and therapeutic benefits just like traditional open surgery. It has also significantly reduced postoperative pain, ensures shorter hospitalization, speedier recovery, and far better cosmetic results.
Today, rapid advancements in the field of medicine and technology have enabled doctors and physicians to perform laparoscopic surgeries for the treatment of different types of urological conditions
Some of the most commonly performed laparoscopic surgeries for urological conditions include:
Laparoscopic simple or radical nephrectomy: A simple Nephrectomy refers to the removal of one kidney. A radical nephrectomy, on the other hand, is a procedure that involves the removal of one kidney along with the adrenal gland and lymph nodes. Laparoscopic nephrectomy is recommended for patients with kidney cancer, symptomatic hydronephrosis, chronic infection, polycystic kidney disease, shrunken kidney, hypertension or renal calculus.
Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy: Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy is a procedure which involves the removal of a kidney for the purpose of donating kidney to another patient. Some of the dangerous donor complications that might occur during this procedure include injury to the renal vessel or bowel, hematoma, and incisional hernias. The recipient risks include ureteral stenosis, vascular thrombosis, and allograft rejection.
Laparoscopic nephroureterectomy: It is a surgical procedure in which the kidney and the ureter are removed. Laparoscopic nephroureterectomy is mainly used to treat patients who are suffering from transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter or kidney. Some of the risks of nephroureterectomy include infection, loss of blood and injury to the surrounding tissue and organs such as bowel, lung, vascular structures, spleen, liver, pancreas and gallbladder.
Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy: This is surgical procedure which is used to remove the damaged part of a kidney.
Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy is usually performed in patients suffering from a solid renal mass in a solitary kidney or compromised contralateral kidney, bilateral renal tumours, and those who have a normal contralateral kidney with localized renal tumours.
The various risks and complications of this procedure include infection, loss of blood, hernias at incision sites, urine leakage, and sometimes injury to the surrounding tissue and organs.
Laparoscopic Pyeloplasty: Laparoscopic Pyeloplasty is a surgical procedure which helps to relieve the obstruction between the ureter and the kidney located in the ureteropelvic junction. Some of the risks of laparoscopic pyeloplasty include infection, loss of blood, failure of surgery and severe injury to surrounding tissue and organs.
Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy: It is a surgical procedure used to remove all of the prostate gland and some of the tissue surrounding it. This procedure is highly effective in the treatment of localized prostate cancer or prostate cancer that has not spread beyond the prostate gland.
Some of the potential risks of the surgery include infection, bleeding, hernias at incision sites, urinary incontinence, erection problems, urethrovesical anastomotic leakage, and injury to the surrounding tissue and organs.
Laparoscopic Radical Cystectomy: It is a surgical procedure which involves the removal of the bladder. Laparoscopic radical cystectomy is usually recommended for patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. The possible risks of the surgery include blood vessel injury, small rectal tear, subcutaneous emphysema, and hypercarbia.